Means, the task consisted in that to explain infinite variety of reality from the maintenance of its most substantsionalny basis - uniform, but at the same time multivarious. Variety of the world - not illusion, but real manifestation of structure of its essence. The essence not only expresses itself in a set of the phenomena, but is various in own unity.
According to Leibniz, the unique variety of things and qualities of the infinite Universe cannot come from the one and only substance so the principle of qualitative variety has to be entered into substance. The philosopher was right, considering that in the nature of life multigoodness has to be available. But this performance against Spinoza's monizm cannot be estimated unambiguously. Leibniz was right, criticizing Spinoza that his doctrine about properties of substance not only does not give the chance to carry out reasonable transition to inexhaustible variety of the world of modes, but even interferes with it.
So, the personality, changing throughout all human life, remains this personality keeping consciousness of a continuity of the existence in time. "Movement" of each monad is its spiritual change, development. All huge set of monads reminds "people" which consciousness is a combination of consciousnesses of the separate monads persons making it.
Physical "points", according to Leibniz, in principle are always difficult, that is is real and learned raschlenima, are divisible on their components so in the corporal nature there are no final, further not divisible elements. Points mathematical abstraction essence, but not reality.
At all the identity of substance are related each other not only that all of them are spiritual, but also that they are eternal and "simple", i.e. are indivisible. In this sense, and also that spatial distinctions are not essential to them at all, they represent "points" - points not mathematical or physical, but "metaphysical".
Monads do not arise because emergence of substances from anything would be miracle, and corporal emergence as connection of earlier existing parts is not inherent in substances. They also do not perish because only difficult bodies can perish, breaking up to the components. Substance cannot die, that is monads "are immortal" and in it are similar to spirits.
Historico-philosophical prerequisites of its philosophy is first of all those contradictions and difficulties which were found in two other great systems of an eyelid - Descartes and Spinoza. Leibniz opposed to these two pictures of the world the.
hichesky and organic and qualitative. Leibniz's method extends an individualization and autonomy worldwide, to his most remote corners. Like various human persons, substances are individual and unique, each of them possesses an originality, on the of manners changes and develops though development all of them happens eventually in the uniform direction.
Leibniz dreamed both of harmonious coordination of monads, and of their subordination forming a control system. But all this is unattainable as contradicts self-isolation of monads, and Leibniz's explanation that one monads willingly submit to another if their views of the world, extremely artificially are close. If samozamknuta monads, it is impossible not only their organization in system of the management and submission, but also dialogue.
As all it is nowadays recognized that exclusively broad outlook and range of activity, a simultaneous discretion of various communications of the problems sorted by it and purposeful research of their internal being were peculiar to Leibniz. Leibniz possessed an amazing szhatost and accuracy of style, creative energy and ability to notice the most various consequences following from the provisions which are put forward by it.
Above short descriptions of the main philosophical currents having not crossed views of essence of substance were provided. For disclosure of depth of a problem I will give outlooks of some philosophers belonging to this or that current.
The motive of great synthesis gets through all system of Leibniz. In one and a half centuries prior to Hegel he considered history of last philosophy not as a congestion of mistakes and delusions, and as a source of great lessons and guesses. The modern science was other teacher for new system: its opening stood at the origins of a monadologiya of Leibniz.